• Contested territories
  • Discovered 1820
  • Population ±1000
  • Area 14.000.000 km²

Antarctica is the most southern continent on Earth. Although there was speculation dating back to antiquity about a large piece of land in the South territory (Terra Australis), Antarctica was discovered as late as 1820 by a Russian expedition. As a result of the barren conditions it was left untouched until a Norwegian expedition led by Roald Amundsen landed on the continent in 1895, beating the British Robert Scott whose team died in the attempt. Antarctica is a condominium, governed by parties who signed the Antarctic Treaty drawn up in 1959. Fifty countries have signed up so far. Since Antarctica is relatively untouched it is an important place for scientific research on climate change.