• Contested territories
  • Capital Srinagar (Summer) & Jammu (Winter)
  • Area 101,338 km²
  • Population 12,541,302

Since 1947, the greater region of Jammu and Kashmir has been embroiled in a territorial dispute between India, Pakistan and China. India control approximately 43% of the land area of the region and 70% of its population, Pakistan controls roughly 37% of the land, while China controls the remaining 20%. Kashmir is widely regarded as the world’s most militarized zone—the region has witnessed three major wars between India and Pakistan, another more limited war between India and China, numerous border skirmishes, high mountainous warfare, an ongoing insurgency, a Hindu exodus and widespread internal civil unrest.