CONIFA as a Platform for Football Diplomacy
International relations and sport have become increasingly intertwined, with sport and sports events being used for various diplomatic and political goals. Yet, membership of FIFA and the IOC is largely organised along lines of sovereign statehood. What about CONIFA, the alternative for contested territories? An academic analysis by Ramesh Ganohariti and Ernst Dijxhoorn.
De Facto States: Survival and Disappearance
De facto states have been a constant presence in the postwar international order. Some survive for a long period of time. Others are forcefully reintegrated into their parent states, or disappear as a result of peacemaking. Only a few successfully transition to full statehood. What explains these very different outcomes? Adrian Florea of the University of Glasgow pinpoints four crucial factors.
Crimea: Independence before Annexation
In March 2014, the Crimean Peninsula declared independence from Ukraine, announcing the formation of the Republic of Crimea. However, just two days later the new republic was annexed by Russia. In this video, James Ker-Lindsay (London School of Economics) explains why Crimea had to claim to be an independent state before it could be incorporated into the Russian Federation.
The European Republic Is Under Construction
What about an European Republic? Ulrike Guerót, founder of the European Democracy Lab, believes passionately in this political utopia. Listen to her TED-talk, in which she argues that the current European system fails, and that we need to rearrange our national borders along regional levels.
Dual Citizenship in De Facto States
The contested nature of de facto states and their acceptance of dual citizenship results in the overlap of multiple citizenship regimes, leading to individuals living in de facto states possessing multiple citizenship statuses. Ramesh Ganohariti of Dublin City University explores the factors that influence the divergent citizenship regimes of Abkhazia and Transnistria.