• Contested territories
  • Independence declared 1991
  • President Samvel Shahramanyan
  • Capital Stepanakert
  • Inhabitants 120,000
  • Area 4,400 km²

Nagorno-Karabakh is a mountainous and forested region in the South Caucasus. Internationally, it is recognized as part of Azerbaijan, but it was controlled for 30 years by an Armenian de facto government which declared independence in 1991. A war was fought from 1991-1994 and again in 2020, resulting in a major shift in the control of the territories. In September 2023, Azeri forces took over the whole enclave in a 1-day war, after which the whole population of over 100,000 inhabitants fled across the border with Armenia. Up to now, nobody returned and the territory is deserted.